Ways To Treat
Scientists quickly managed to decipher the genome of the new virus, but the vaccine is still under development and has to go through many clinical trials. However, a number of existing antiviral drugs have an effect on 2019-nCoV. Among them there are quite popular antiviral drugs Aralen (active ingredient Chloroquine) and Kaletra (active ingredients Lopinavir + Ritonavir). The first prevents the virus from entering the host cell; the second blocks the replication of the virus.
Scientists about possible treatment of COVID-2019
US National Library of Medicine National Institutes of Health
Generic Kaletra contains a combination of lopinavir and ritonavir. Lopinavir and ritonavir are antiviral medications that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells from multiplying in your body.Lopinavir and ritonavir (Kaletra) is a combination medicine used to treat HIV, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This medicine is not a cure for HIV or AIDS.
Lopinavir and ritonavir tablet
What is this medicine?LOPINAVIR and RITONAVIR are antiviral medications that prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) cells from multiplying in your body.Lopinavir and ritonavir (Kaletra) is a combination medicine used to treat HIV, which causes the acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). This medicine is not a cure for HIV or AIDS.Kaletra may also be used for purposes not listed in this medication guide.
What should my health care professional know before I take this medicine?Serious drug interactions can occur when certain medicines are used together with lopinavir and ritonavir. Tell each of your healthcare providers about all medicines you use now, and any medicine you start or stop using. Some medicines can cause unwanted or dangerous effects when used with Kaletra. Your doctor may need to change your treatment plan if you use any of the following drugs:
- lovastatin, simvastatin;
- midazolam, triazolam;
- sildenafil (Revatio for pulmonary arterial hypertension);
- St. John's wort; or
- an ergot medicine (ergotamine, dihydroergotamine, methylergonovine).
- liver disease (especially hepatitis B or C);
- heart disease or a heart rhythm disorder;
- a personal or family history of Long QT Syndrome;
- pancreas problems;
- low levels of potassium in your blood;
- a bleeding disorder such as hemophilia;
- high cholesterol or triglycerides; or
- if you have ever used a protease inhibitor in the past.
How should I take this medicine?Follow all directions on your prescription label, especially when giving the medicine to a child. Do not take this medicine in larger or smaller amounts or for longer than recommended. If a child is taking this medication, tell your doctor if the child has any changes in weight. Kaletra doses are based on weight in children. Do not crush, chew, or break a Kaletra tablet. Swallow the pill whole. Kaletra tablets can be taken with or without food. While using Kaletra, you may need frequent blood tests at your doctor's office. HIV/AIDS is usually treated with a combination of drugs. Use all medications as directed by your doctor. Read the medication guide or patient instructions provided with each medication. Do not change your doses or medication schedule without your doctor's advice. Every person with HIV or AIDS should remain under the care of a doctor.
What may interact with this medicine?Many drugs can interact with Kaletra. Not all possible interactions are listed here. Tell your doctor about all your current medicines and any you start or stop using, especially:
- antiviral medicines to treat hepatitis C or HIV;
- cancer medicine;
- medicine to prevent organ transplant rejection;
- "statin" cholesterol-lowering medicine;
- an antibiotic--bedaquiline, clarithromycin, metronidazole, rifabutin;
- antifungal medicine--itraconazole, ketoconazole, voriconazole;
- heart or blood pressure medicine--amiodarone, felodipine, lidocaine, nicardipine, nifedipine, quinidine;
- medicine to prevent blood clots--rivaroxaban, warfarin (Coumadin, Jantoven);
- medicine to treat impotence or pulmonary arterial hypertension--avanafil (Stendra), sildenafil (Viagra, Revatio), tadalafil (Adcirca, Cialis), or vardenafil (Levitra, Staxyn);
- medicine to treat severe depression or schizophrenia--bupropion (Wellbutrin, Zyban), quetiapine, trazodone;
- narcotic medicine--fentanyl, methadone;
- seizure medicine--carbamazepine, divalproex sodium, lamotrigine, phenobarbital, phenytoin, valproate, valproic acid; or
- steroid medicine--budesonide, dexamethasone, prednisone, fluticasone.
What should I watch for while taking this medicine?Taking this medication will not prevent you from passing HIV to other people. Do not have unprotected sex or share razors or toothbrushes. Talk with your doctor about safe ways to prevent HIV transmission during sex. Sharing drug or medicine needles is never safe, even for a healthy person.
What side effects may I notice from this medicine?Get emergency medical help if you have signs of an allergic reaction: hives; difficulty breathing; swelling of your face, lips, tongue, or throat. Stop taking Kaletra and call your doctor at once if you have:
- headache with chest pain and severe dizziness, fainting, fast or pounding heartbeats;
- severe pain in your upper stomach spreading to your back, nausea and vomiting;
- itching, loss of appetite, dark urine, clay-colored stools, jaundice (yellowing of the skin or eyes);
- high blood sugar (increased thirst, increased urination);
- penis erection that is painful or lasts 4 hours or longer (if you take Kaletra with erectile dysfunction medication);
- muscle weakness, tired feeling, joint or muscle pain, feeling short of breath; or
- severe skin reaction--fever, sore throat, swelling in your face or tongue, burning in your eyes, skin pain followed by a red or purple skin rash that spreads (especially in the face or upper body) and causes blistering and peeling.
- signs of a new infection--fever, night sweats, swollen glands, mouth sores, diarrhea, stomach pain, weight loss;
- chest pain (especially when you breathe), dry cough, wheezing, feeling short of breath;
- cold sores, sores on your genital or anal area;
- rapid heart rate, feeling anxious or irritable, weakness or prickly feeling, problems with balance or eye movement;
- trouble speaking or swallowing, severe lower back pain, loss of bladder or bowel control; or
- swelling in your neck or throat (enlarged thyroid), menstrual changes, impotence, loss of interest in sex.
- nausea, vomiting, diarrhea;
- high cholesterol; or
- changes in the shape or location of body fat (especially in your arms, legs, face, neck, breasts, and waist).
Where can I keep my medicine?Store the tablets at room temperature, away from heat and moisture. Keep the pills in their original container with the cap tightly closed.
Generic Aralen is used for treating and suppressing acute attacks of certain strains of malaria and a certain type of parasitic infection (extraintestinal amebiasis).
Chloroquine Phosphate tablet
What is this medicine?CHLOROQUINE is used to treat or prevent malaria infections. It is also used to treat amebiasis.
What should I tell my health care provider before I take this medicine?They need to know if you have any of these conditions:
- eye disease, vision problems
- glucose 6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency
- hearing problems
- liver disease
- history of seizures
- an unusual or allergic reaction to chloroquine, hydroxychloroquine, other medicines, foods, dyes, or preservatives
- pregnant or trying to get pregnant
How should I use this medicine?Take this medicine by mouth with a glass of water. Follow the directions on the prescription label. To prevent malaria, take this medicine on the same day each week starting 2 weeks before entering the endemic area and continue for 8 weeks after leaving. Take your doses at regular intervals. Do not take your medicine more often than directed. Talk to your pediatrician regarding the use of this medicine in children. While this drug may be prescribed for selected conditions, precautions do apply. Overdosage: If you think you have taken too much of this medicine contact a poison control center or emergency room at once. NOTE: This medicine is only for you. Do not share this medicine with others.
What if I miss a dose?If you miss a dose, take it as soon as you can. If it is almost time for your next dose, take only that dose. Do not take double or extra doses.
What may interact with this medicine?Do not take this medicine with any of the following:
- arsenic trioxide
- medicines for depression, anxiety, or psychotic disturbances
- medicines for irregular heartbeats, rhythm
- some antibiotics like erythromycin, levofloxacin
What should I watch for while using this medicine?Tell your doctor or health care professional if your symptoms do not start to get better in a few days. If you are taking this medicine for a long time, visit your doctor or health care professional for regular checks. If you notice any changes in your vision see your eye doctor for an eye exam. If you get a fever during or after you start taking this medicine, do not treat yourself. Contact your doctor or health care professional immediately. You may get drowsy or dizzy. Do not drive, use machinery, or do anything that needs mental alertness until you know how this medicine affects you. Do not stand or sit up quickly, especially if you are an older patient. This reduces the risk of dizzy or fainting spells. While in areas where malaria is common, you should take steps to prevent being bit by mosquitos. This includes staying in air-conditioned or well-screened rooms to reduce human-mosquito contact, sleep under mosquito netting, preferably one with pyrethrum-containing insecticide, wear long-sleeved shirts or blouses and long trousers to protect arms and legs, apply mosquito repellents containing DEET to uncovered areas of skin, and use a pyrethrum-containing flying insect spray to kill mosquitos. This medicine can make you more sensitive to the sun. Keep out of the sun. If you cannot avoid being in the sun, wear protective clothing and use sunscreen. Do not use sun lamps or tanning beds/booths. Avoid products with antacids and kaolin for 4 hours before and after taking a dose of this medicine.
What side effects may I notice from receiving this medicine?Side effects that you should report to your doctor or health care professional as soon as possible:
- allergic reactions like skin rash, itching or hives, swelling of the face, lips, or tongue
- changes in vision
- hearing loss or ringing
- feeling faint, lightheaded
- fever or infection
- muscle weakness
- numbness, tingling
- unusual bleeding or bruising
- unusually weak or tired
- bleaching of body hair
- blue-black color to the skin, nails
- hair loss
- loss of appetite
- nausea, vomiting
- stomach cramps